Chapter II - Human Anatomy
Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. It studies gross structures and systems of the human body, leaving the study of tissues to histology and cells to cytology. The human body, like the bodies of all animals, is made up of systems that are made up of organs that are made up of tissues that are made up of cells.
Human organ systems:
1. Cardiovascular system: Blood circulations with heart and blood vessels.
2. Digestive system: Processing food with mouth, stomach and intestines.
3. Endocrine system: Communicating within the body using hormones.
4. Immune system: Defending against disease-causing agents.
5. Integumentary system: Skin, hair and nails.
6. Lymphatic system: Structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the bloodstream.
7. Muscular system: Moving the body
8. Nervous system: Collecting, transferring and processing information with brain and nerves
9. Reproductive system: The sex organs
10. Respiratory system: The organs used for breathing, the lungs
11. Skeletal system: Structural support and protection through bones
12. Urinary system: The kidneys and associated structures involved in the production and excretion of urine
External body features:
Fig: External Body Features
Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:
Head -- Forehead -- Eye -- Ear -- Nose -- Mouth -- Tongue -- Teeth -- Jaw -- Face -- Cheek -- Chin
Neck -- Throat -- Adam's apple -- Shoulders
Arm -- Elbow -- Wrist -- Hand -- Fingers -- Thumb
Spine -- Chest -- Breast -- Ribcage
Abdomen -- Belly button -- Sex organs (Penis/Scrotum or Clitoris/Vagina) -- Rectum -- Anus
Hip -- Buttocks -- Leg -- Thigh -- Knee -- Calf -- Heel -- Ankle -- Foot -- Toes
Common names of internal organs (in alphabetical order):
Anatomy of the brain
Amygdala -- Brainstem -- Cerebellum -- Cerebral cortex -- Hypothalamus -- Limbic system -- medulla-- midbrain -- Pituitary gland -- pons.
Studying Human Anatomy
Certain professions, especially medicine and physiotherapy, require the study of human anatomy in depth. Textbooks usually split the body into the following regional groups:
Head and Neck - includes everything above the thoracic inlet
Upper limb - includes everything from your hand, forearm, arm, shoulder, axilla, pectoral region and scapular region.
Thorax - contains the region of the chest from the thoracic inlet to the thoracic diaphragm.
Abdomen - Everything from the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvic brim or to the pelvic inlet.
The back - about the spine and its components, the intervertebral disks and bodies
Pelvis and Perineum - the pelvis consists of everything from the pelvic inlet to the pelvic diaphragm. The perineum is everything below the pelvic diaphragm.
Lower limb - the lower limb is usually everything below the inguinal ligament, including the thigh, the hip joint, the leg, and the foot.
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Chapter II - Human Anatomy