Acne Vulgaris Drugs
These drugs control the inflammatory eruptions composed of cysts, papules, and comedones, predominantly on the face, upper back, and chest. The condition occurs in a majority of people during puberty and adolescence. Examples: Benzoyl peroxide, tretinoin, Ultra, Olux, and topical erythromycin.
Anabolic agents are the ones, which can stimulate growth of muscle mass. They are the compounds with androgenic properties and are used in severe cases of emaciation and most prominently by athletes to increase their muscle size, strength, and endurance. Some of the examples are Histerone 100, Depo-Testosterone, Malogen, etc.
Analgesics or as the name suggests are drugs, which have the property of reducing the pain or rather producing a neurologic and pharmacologic state in which the painful stimuli are blunted so much so that though they are still perceived, they are no longer painful.
Antacids are agents used to neutralize the excess acid in the stomach released in cases of acidity, gastritis and ulcers. They neutralize the effects of HCl, thereby providing relief from indigestion and heartburn. The efficacy of antacids depends on their capacity to protect the mucosa of the stomach from acid and pepsin. Drugs: Calcium carbonate.
Antiallergics prevent, inhibit, and alleviate allergic reactions. Generally, histamines are responsible for allergies. Antiallergics act as antihistamines and suppress their effects. Antiallergics act against itching and flash responses of the histamines. Antihistamines are subdivided in two broad categories: sedative and non-sedative. Cetirizine is one example of non-sedative antihistamine, while diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine are the examples of sedative antihistamines. Two lesser known categories of antihistamines are mast cell stabilizers and histamine receptor blockers.
Antianginals act against angina pectoris, that is the symptom exhibited in ischemic heart disease. Antianginals improve the balance between the delivery of oxygen to myocardium and its utilization by the myocardium. Antianginals are available in various forms, viz., calcium channel blockers, organic nitrates, beta-adrenergic blockers, potassium channel activators, and antiplatelet drugs. These drugs relieve angina pectoris by expanding blood vessels of the heart. Some are nitroglycerin, nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil.
Antiarrhythmic drugs are used to treat irregular heart rhythms resulting from the disturbance in the heart's electrical firing system. Antiarrhythmic drugs enhance the blood flow in the coronary vessels of the heart. This causes vasodilation and decreases the resistance felt in the peripheral vascular system. Clinically, antiarrhythmics are divided into three broad categories;
a) Which act on supraventricular arrhythmia (like digoxin and verapamil).
b) Which act on both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia (quinidine, amiodarone, metoprolol)
c) Which act solely on the ventricular arrhythmia.
Anticoagulants delay the clotting or coagulation process of blood. When any vessel is blocked by a clot of blood, an anticoagulant is administered to prevent new clots from forming with the earlier clots and thereby suppressing their enlargement. However, an anticoagulant only prevents from blood clotting but is incapable of dissolving an existing blood clot. Patients with artificial heart valves and atrial fibrillation are at the risk of forming blood clots and they are therefore prescribed anticoagulants to prevent such a situation. Heparin and warfarin are the most commonly used anticoagulants.
Anticonvulsants alleviate or reduce the severity of seizures and also prevent further seizure attacks.
Drugs useful in treatment of depression are termed as anti-depressants. There are three kinds of antidepressants, viz., tetracyclic, triazolopyridine, and tricyclic.
Antidiabetic agents are drugs that lower the blood sugar level. They are therefore also called hypoglycemic drugs. They are of two types; sulfonylureas and biguanides. Examples of sulfonylureas are chlorpropamide and glipizide while Metformin and phenformin are biguanides.
Antidiarrheals are the agents used to relieve diarrhea. They do so either by absorbing the excess fluids that cause diarrhea or by slowing the movement of fecal material through intestine thereby allowing more time for absorption of water. The first step in treatment of diarrhea is replacement of fluid and electrolytes.
Antiemetics are agents that suppress nausea and vomiting. These drugs act on brain control centers to stop nerve impulses, control motion sickness and dizziness. Antiemetics can be further divided into various categories like antihistamines, anticholinergics, and dopamine antagonists. Eg: Ondansetron is one of the strongest antiemetic.
Antiflatulents reduce gas and bloating. These agents facilitate passing out of gas by breaking down gas bubbles into smaller size by stimulating intestinal motility. Eg: Maalox, Mylanta.
Drugs that lower the intraocular pressure of the eyes by reducing production of aqueous humor are called antiglaucoma drugs. Most drugs of this class are beta-adrenergics. Drugs: timolol maleate, betaxolol, levobunolol, pilocarpine.
Histamines cause the swelling and inflammation of the nasal passages. Antihistamine counteracts that effect. Antihistamines are the primary agents used to relieve the allergic rhinitis symptoms. Antihistamines dry the respiratory tract and are effective in treating the cough caused by the allergens and the common cold in its early stages.
Antihypertensives are the agents used to lower high blood pressure. They include diuretics also known as water pills, beta blockers, alpha blockers, alpha-beta blockers, sympathetic nerve inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Antihypertensives work one or more the following three ways to lower the blood pressures in the vessels, by decreasing the blood volume, restricting constriction or narrowing of the blood vessels and increase dilation thereby making the blood flow easier, by decreasing the force of the heart thereby decreasing the blood pumped through the arteries. Examples are amlodipine, quinapril, benazepril, captopril, clonidine, enalapril, furosemide, terazosin, lisinopril, nifedipine, and quinapril.
Are the drugs that reduce inflammation in cases of infection, injuries etc. Anti-inflammatory drugs are available in two types: steroidal and non-steroidal called NSAID. Anti-inflammatory drugs do not act directly against the causative agents. They act on the mechanisms of the body and reduce the inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally used in cases of arthritis and gout. Glucocorticoids and aspirin are the examples.
Psoriasis refers to the circumscribed, silvery-scaled confluent, reddish lesions of the skin that primarily occur on knees, scalp, elbow, and trunk. Drugs treating psoriasis are called antipsoriatic drugs.
These drugs are effective for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis manifested by erythematous and scaly lesion. Selenium sulfide, selenium disulfide with clotrimazole, cetrimide, & a combination of cetyl alcohol, sulphur precipitate, salicylic acid. Indications: Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis.
Antispasmodics are the agents used in prevention and reduction of smooth muscle spasms by acting on the autonomic nervous system, thus relieving spasms of bowel. Eg: Belladonna alkaloids.
Antitussive drugs suppress cough. Codeine, dextromethorphan are some examples.
Anti-ulcers are administered in the cases of peptic ulcers to get relief from pain, promote healing, and prevent recurrence. Drugs: ranitidine, cimetidine, omeprazole, famotidine, nizatidine.
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents are used in the treatment of arrhythmias, stable (exercise-induced) angina: unstable angina, postmyocardial hypertension, and migraine headaches. Beta-blockers act like inhibitors and interfere with the action of stimulating hormones on the beta-adrenergic receptors in the nervous system. Beta-blockers are divided into the groups of beta I (affecting the heart) and beta 2 (affecting the receptors in the bronchial tissue). Atenolol and metoprolol are the two examples of beta-adrenergic blockers.
Bronchodilators open up the clogged lung airway passages at times of airway narrowing. They open up the breathing passages and dilate the bronchi.
Calcium Channel Blockers
Calcium channel blockers are the agents that selectively block the flow of calcium ions into the cardiac and smooth muscle cells. These agents lower the blood pressure, relieve angina (chest pain), and stabilize the certain types of abnormal heart rhythms. They are used to treat angina pectoris, some form of hypertension, and some arrhythmias. Diltiazem and Verapamil are such calcium channel blockers.
Contraceptives inhibit ovulation and thereby acts as a deterrent against pregnancy. They are available as steroids and chemicals. Steroids are generally the oral contraceptive pills called OCP, a combination drug of estrogen and progesterone. On the other hand, chemical contraceptives comprise foam, gel, cream, or other spermicidals, which are placed in the vagina before intercourse. They prevent pregnancy by killing the sperms.
Corticosteroids are steroids produced by the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are used for adrenal insufficiency. They suppress inflammation, allergy, and reduce the chances of rejection in transplantation cases, and also treat some tumors. The two kinds of corticosteroids are mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoid. Aldosterone is an example of mineralocorticoids. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and triamcinolone are glucocorticoids.
Cycloplegics and Mydriatics
Cycloplegics are agents that paralyze ciliary muscles and result in pupillary dilation. Mydriatics are agents that cause dilation of pupils. Most of the mydriatics cause cycloplegia also. Drugs: atropine, homatropine, cyclopentolate, and tropicamide.
Decongestants reduce the congestion of swelling in the nasal passages, especially by constricting the blood vessels and limiting the blood supply to the area.
Diuretics increase the rate of urine formation after administration. All diuretic agents except osmotic diuretic act directly on the kidneys at the level of renal tubules. Diuretics are used to treat edema due to nephrotic syndrome and other diseases. Some examples are hydrochlorothiazide, Dyazide and Dyrenium.
Emollients and Keratolytics
Emollients are agents used to soothe and hydrate the skin. After application on the skin, emollients prevent evaporation of water by forming a thin greasy layer on the skin surface. Emollients improve the dryness of skin but are not to be used on exudative lesions, Vaseline petrolatum, oils like coconut, ground nut, etc. Keratolytics are agents applied to soften the epidermic cells and desquamate them. Salicylic acid, benzoic acid, propylene glycol, zinc oxide, and dimethicone are some of them.
Estrogen hormones are used as oral contraceptives and also in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. They act by binding the estrogen nuclear receptors. However, prolonged use can lead to skin rash, thromboembolism, and endometrial cancer. Estrogens are secreted by ovaries and are necessary for normal development of breasts, female genital tract, and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogens are also necessary for maintenance of pregnancy:
They help loosen the mucus by making bronchial secretions thinner and easier to cough up. Iodides are commonly used expectorants, and guaifenesin and terpin hydrate are ingredients in many over-the-counter preparations.
Fibrin is a kind of elastic protein derived from fibrinogen, which helps in the clotting of blood. Fibrinolytics dissolve the clots by hydrolysis of fibrin. These fibrinolytics produce plasmin enzyme, which acts against the clotting process. Fibrinolytics are used in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis.
Gonadotropins are the hormonal preparations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) that raise the sperm count in infertility cases. These preparations are required for ovulation and spermatogenesis.
Hemostasis is a condition in which bleeding is arrested and hemostatics are agents, which arrest the bleeding in the vessels.
Hypnotics are those agents or drugs, which have soporific effect and are used for causing sleep or hypnosis.
Immunosuppressants prevent or interfere with the immunologic response. In cases of transplants, the host tissues sometimes reject the transplanted organs or tissues. Immunosuppressants are used to facilitate the acceptance of the transplanted organs and prevent the rejection and also used in the treatment of autoimmune disease.
Laxatives promote bowel movements and defecation when used in small doses to relieve constipation and in large doses to evacuate the whole gastrointestinal tract. Drugs: cascara sagrada, casanthranol, and docusate.
Miotic agents cause constriction of pupil of eye. Mostly used in the treatment of glaucoma. These agents are used to counteract mydriatics after they have been used for testing refraction. Drugs: pilocarpine.
Mucolytics liquefy or break down the obstinate mucus so that it can be expectorated more easily.
Muscle relaxants are those agents, which reduce the muscle tension and provide therapeutic treatment. These agents block the polysynaptic spinal reflexes and reduce the muscle tone. Examples: Baclofen, methocarbamol, and tizanidine.
Neuromuscular drugs are generally used during anesthesia administration to allow access to body cavities. They prevent the voluntary or reflex muscle movement interference. Neuromuscular drugs can be divided into three broad categories: non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, and anticholinesterases used in anesthesia.
Various antibiotics are used in many eye infections caused by pathogens like bacteria. Many of these antibiotics are used in combination with corticosteroids. These antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections of the eye, fungal infections of the eye, conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, meibomianitis, trachoma, dacryocystitis and differ according to the type of infection. Drugs: norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, sulfacetamide sodium, chloramphenicol, miconazole, silver sulfadiazine, acyclovir, ofloxacin, framycetin sulfate, polymyxin.
Opiates are the narcotic drugs derived from opium. There are multifarious uses of opiates. They are used as analgesics, hypnotics, mood elevators, and antidiarrheals.
Oxytocin is a nonapeptide neurohypophyseal hormone that causes myometrial contractions at term and promotes milk release during lactation. Oxytocins are used for induction or stimulation of labor. They are also used to manage the postpartum hemorrhage and atony
Psychotropic drugs affect the mind, emotions, and behavior. They are used in the treatment of psychic illnesses.
Sedatives are those agents or drugs that depresses the central nervous activities and contain the excitement.
Spermicidals are available in gel, pessary or foam, or in cream formulation. (Pessary is a surgical plug worn in the vagina to support the womb.) Spermicidals are placed in the vagina for contraception, for they destroy the sperms.
Topical analgesics stimulate the sensory nerve endings and produce a soothing tingling sensation and warmth. Diclofenac, nimesulide, and ketoprofen are the examples of such topical analgesics.
Topical antifungals kill the fungus selectively. These include scabicides, which kill the scabiei that invade the epidermis. Examples: malathion, lindane, benzyl benzoate. Some other antifungals are miconazole, which has a broad spectrum of antifungal activity and is used for fungal and eczematous infections of tinea, candidiasis of skin and nails and also for eczema with bacterial infection; clotrimazole, which is used for tinea infections, fungal nappy rash, candida vulvitis, candida balanitis, paronychia, and athlete’s foot; econazole for fungal infections of skin and skin infections due to gram positive bacteria; and ketoconazole for fungal infections of skin.
Topical anti-infectives are used for treatment of bacterial infections of skin, impetigo, eczema, folliculitis, leg ulcers. Also used for abrasions, cuts, and as preoperative antiseptics. Examples-mupirocin, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, sulfonamides, nitrofurazone, acyclovir. The antiseptics used are chloroxylenol, cetrimide, Povidone iodine.
Topical steroids are used to treat various dermatological disorders like contact dermatitis, psoriasis, keloid scars, seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, and vulval pruritus. Examples: beclomethasone dipropionate, triamcinolone acetate, hydrocortisone, methyl prednisolone acetate, dexamethasone sodium phosphate.
Tranquilizers are agents or drugs, which have a calming, soothing, or pacifying effect. This helps in the treatment of anxiety and agitation.
Uricosurics increase the excretion of uric acid from the body They are generally used to treat gout. Some of the prominent uricosurics used are allopurinol (Zyloprim), colchicine (available as generic only), probenecid (Probalan), etc.
Vaccines and immunoglobulins
Vaccines and immunoglobulins are used for immunological prophylaxis. Immunization can be obtained in two ways, active and passive. Active immunization is obtained through the administration of vaccines and also by recovering from an infection and thereby building the resistance. Passive immunization is obtained through the administration of antibodies by means of antiserum and immunoglobulins. Some of the well-known vaccines and immunoglobulins are as follows: BCG vaccines, polio vaccines, triple antigen, tetanus immunoglobulin, rabies immunoglobulin, etc.
Antiseptics and Disinfectants
Proflavine, Benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, Formaldehyde solution, Hexachlorophene, Liquefied phenol, Nitrofurantoin. Sulfathiazole, succinyl sulfathiazole, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine. Sulfa, co-trimoxazole, sulfacetamide.
Some Common Drugs:
Antileprotic Drugs-clofazimine, Thiambutosine, Dapsone, solapsone.
Anti-tubercular Drugs-Isoniazid, PAS, Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Thiacetazone, Ethionamide, Cycloserine, Pyrazinamide.
Anti-amoebic and /anthelmintic Drugs-Emetine, Metronidazole, Halogenated hydroxyquinoline, diloxanide furoate, Paromomycin Piperazine, Mebendazole.
Antibiotics-Benzyl Penicillin, Phenoxy methyl Penicillin &, Benzathine Penicillin, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, gentamicin, Neomycin, Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Cephalexin, Cephaloridine, Cephalothin, Griseofulvin, Chloramphenicol. Antifungal agents-Undecylenic acid, Tolnaftate, Nystatin, Amphotericin, Hamycin.
Antimalarial Drugs-Chloroquine, Amodiaquine, Primaquine, Proguanil, Pyrimethamine, Quinine, Trimethoprim.
Tranquilizers-Chlorpromazine, Prochlorperazine, Trifluoperazine, Haloperidol, Oxypertine, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Meprobamate.
Hypnotics:- Phenobarbitone, Methyprylon, paraldehyde. Triclofos sodium.
General Anesthetics-Halothane, Cyclopropane, Diethyl ether, Methohexital sodium, Thiopental sodium, Trichloroethylene.
Antidepressant Drugs-Amitriptyline, Nortriptyline, imipramine, Phenerzine, Tranylcypromine.
Analeptics-Theophylline, Caffeine, Dextro-amphetamine.
Adrenergic Drugs-Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Isoprenaline, Phenylephrine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Ephedrine, Pseudo ephedrine.
Adrenergic Antagonist-Tolazoline, Propranolol.
Cholinergic Drugs-Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Pralidoxime, Pilocarpine, Physostigmine.
Cholinergic Antagonists-Atropine, Hyoscine, Homatropine, Propantheline, Benztropine, Tropicamide, Biperiden*.
Diuretic Drugs-Furosemide, Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide Benzthiazide, Urea, Mannitol, Ethacrynic Acid.
Cardiovascular Drugs-Ethyl nitrite, Glyceryl trinitrate, Alpha methyldopa, Guanethidine, Clofibrate, Quinidine.
Hypoglycemic Agents-Insulin, chlorpropamide, Tolbutamide Glibenclamide, Phenformin, Metformin.
Coagulants and Anti Coagulants-Heparin, Thrombin, Menadione, Bishydroxycoumarin, Warfarin Sodium.
Local Anesthetics-Lignocaine, Procaine, Benzocaine.
Histamine and Anti histaminic Agents-Histamine, Diphen Hydramine. Promethazine, Cyproheptadine, Mepyramine, Pheniramine, Chlorpheniramine.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory Agents-Indomethacin, Phenylbutazone, Oxyphenbutazone, Ibuprofen.
Antithyroids-Thyroxine, Methimazole, Methyl thiouracil, Propylthiouracil.
Diagnostic Agents-Iopanoic Acid, Propyliodone, Sulfobromophthalein Sodium, Indigotindisulfonate Sodium (Indigo Carmine), Evans blue, Congo Red, Fluorescein Sodium.
Steroidal Drugs-Betamethasone, Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, Progesterone, Testosterone, Oestradiol Nandrolone.
Anti-Neoplastic Drugs-Actinomycins, Azathioprine, Busulfan, Chlorambucil, Cisplatin cyclophosphamide, Daunorubicin, Hydrochloride, Fluorouracil, Mercaptopurine, Methotrexate.